Collecting Urine Samples
How to collect a urine sample from your dog:
Use a clean dry container such as a takeaway container and free catch a urine sample by directly placing under the urine outlet. Label the container with your surname, pets name and address. Try to avoid collecting debris such as soil or hair, it will contaminate the sample. Please do not use containers that may have contained sugar at some point. This can also affect the sample.
How to collect urine from your cat:
We sell a non-absorbable litter complete with pipette and container that you simply place into your cat's litter tray instead of the normal litter. Once your cat has urinated in here use the pipette to suck some urine up and place into the container and label with your pets name, surname and address.
Shred a plastic carrier bag into an empty litter tray. Once your cat has urinated transfer the urine into a clean dry pot such as a takeaway container.
Your pet has been prescribed one or more chemotherapeutic drugs as part of his/her treatment regime. Chemotherapy means the treatment of disease by chemical agents. The drugs that are used are ”cytotoxic”, meaning that they will kill actively dividing cells, such as cancer cells. As such they have the potential to damage normal cells and may cause signs of illness and are potentially dangerous for people contacting them.
Safe Handling and Use of Cytotoxic Drugs
Taking precautions as outlined below, will reduce the risk to yourself and others from the
hazardous effects of cytotoxic drugs.
- Store your pet's drugs away from the reach of any children and from any other drugs (human or animal) that you have stored in your house. Do not store them near to food storage or food preparation areas.
- Keep your pet's drugs in the container in which they have been dispensed to you, and do not transfer them to another type of container.
- Use the latex gloves provided when giving you pet its medication. Always use the pill popper to treat the animal, if you accidentally make skin contact with the tablets then wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Do not crush or cut the tablets.
- You should try to be aware of the area where the animal urinates so that it can be watered in well to dilute urine. Try to be careful with the use of water so there is no splashing
- Animals should not be walked or allowed to roam in a public place during the period body wastes may be contaminated. This may be up to 48 hours or more after each treatment
- Animals should not be walked or allowed to roam in a public place during the period body wastes may be contaminated. This may be up to 48 hours or more after each treatment.
- Wash the shovel under running water.
- Excreta which cannot be picked up should be diluted by hosing (without a jet) until it has been dispersed.
- Laundry/disposal of bedding ‐ animal bedding or your own clothing with traces of contamination should be laundered immediately, and separately from other items.
- They should be washed in hot water on the longest running cycle, and double rinsed
- For cats using a litter pan, dispose of letter twice daily. Wear gloves when handling the litter pan or pan liners.
A small quantity of patient waste (excreta, urine or vomit) deposited on the floor or on
furniture should be dealt with as follows:
- Put on gloves.
- Wipe up spill with flushable paper and double flush down the toilet with lid closed, or disposable paper toweling or linen, placing the material in the cytotoxic waste bag.
- Clean area with water and detergent.
- Dispose of cleaning cloth and gloves in separate double bag in household rubbish or you can bring the sealed bag into the clinic and we will dispose of it for you safely. It is best to use flushable paper wherever possible to reduce the amount of contaminated waste to be placed in household garbage.
Owners and other family members should exercise careful hygiene practices after handling pets receiving cytotoxic drugs. The time for particular care is during the period the drugs may be excreted which is within the 48 hours after each dose is given.
Depending on the individual drug your pet is being treated with it may be present in your pet's urine. If your pet urinates inside then please take the same precautions listed above when clearing it up. The drug is normally excreted from the animal within 48 hours after treatment, but this is dependent on the drug which is being used.
Pregnant or breast feeding women, small children and older persons should avoid contact with the drugs and the animal waste during treatment.
If there is any accidental exposure or accidental ingestion of the drugs by children, medical advice must be sought immediately. Phone 999.
If you have any drugs left that you have not administered to your pet, please bring them into the clinic for us to dispose of for you, DO NOT DISPOSE OF THEM IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD RUBBISH.
If you have any questions about your pet's health or his treatment please so not hesitate to contact us on 01704 82 1204 (Rufford Surgery) or 01704 21 44 60 (Southport Surgery).
Feeding Neonatal Puppies
Suckling from the dam and passive immunity
It is important that a new born must suckle milk from the dam during the first few hours of life. Antibodies that a dam has are actively concentrated in the first milk. The antibodies absorbed by the neonate in the milk (colostrum) will circulate and protect the animal for weeks to months. This is known as passive immunity.
Absorption of antibodies is most effective in the first six hours of life and is much less effective after 24 hours.
A young animal should consume 5% of it’s body weight in colostrum in it’s first six hours of life and a further 5% before 24 hours of age.
Passive immunity will wane and it is important that the puppy receives their first vaccination which can be done as early as six weeks. Ask your veterinary surgeon for more details.
The dam and taking care of the litter
- During the first few weeks of life the dam will take care of the litter, however it is important to monitor the puppies regularly for signs of ill health.
- Check the neonates for any clinical abnormalities such as a cleft palate or harelip.
- Check the umbilicus for herniation. The umbilicus should be clean with no signs of bleeding. If bleeding is present, the umbilicus must be ligated to prevent further blood loss.
- The normal respiratory rate of a neonate is 15-40 breaths per minute and should be a regular and even pattern. Any excessive noise may indicate that the neonate still has fluid on the lungs, if you are concerned you should contact your veterinary surgeon/nurse for advice.
- Eyes and ears should be free form discharge and the colour of their mucus membranes should be pink.
- Record the birth weight of each puppy. Normal neonates will increase their body weight by 5-10% per day. Regular weight checks should be carried out weekly to ensure they are receiving an adequate supply of milk.
- Ensure bedding is kept clean so that the dam and her litter are comfortable. It is important that the neonates are able to be kept warm. You can monitor this by taking a rectal temperature. The normal rectal temperature for the first week after birth should be 32-34°C.
- During the first 2-3 weeks of life the dam will stimulate the puppies to urinate and defecate. After this time the puppies will toilet voluntarily. It is important to check that each puppy can urinate and defecate independently.
- When the puppies reach 10-14 days old they will open their eyes and start to crawl. It is advisable to ensure that all puppies can use their hind legs properly.
- Puppies can commence weaning from five weeks of age. This should be a gradual process and you should contact your veterinary surgeon/nurse for advice if you are unsure how to do this.
Support feeding and hand rearing of puppies
- Supplementary milks are available to support the feeding of puppies. These supplements can be administered to puppies from 0-8 weeks of age. They contain all the necessary proteins, essential fatty acids and nutritional additives essential for growth and development.
- Probiotic colostrums are available which can be administered orally to boost energy and stimulate weak and/or underweight failing puppies. It is advisable that this is administered in conjunction with a supplementary milk.
- Adaptil is a synthetic appeasing pheromone which like the natural pheromones released by the dam from her mammary glands during lactation provides reassurance to puppies helping them to feel at ease and secure when encountering new experiences and unknown environments.
- During feeding if you notice milk in the nares (nose) this may be because the puppy has inhaled some and you must stop immediately. Contact your veterinary surgeon/nurse for advice if you are concerned.
- Ensure that each puppy is stimulated to toilet before and after feeding. Stimulation is important during the first few weeks. You can achieve this by dabbing/gently rubbing some damp cotton wool around the genital areas. It is important to monitor both urine and faecal output. In cases of constipation, gently massage the puppies abdomen in a circular motion on a heat pad to stimulate gut movement.
- It is important that puppies are kept warm because they can not regulate their own body temperature. All bedding should be kept clean and unsoiled. Any excess milk on the coat should be wiped clean with a slightly damp cloth to prevent hypothermia.
- Ensure that the nose and mouth is kept clear from fluids allowing the puppy to maintain a patent airway.